Teacher Resources

Teacher Resources

Current Exhibit: Understanding our Past, Shaping our Future 

Introduction

Cherokee history is interwoven into the landscape, oral tradition, and crafts of western North Carolina. Cherokee people are still here and their culture, while rooted in tradition, moves forward with the rest of society into the 21st Century.

Use the artifacts, books, and ideas in the Cherokee History and Craft Trunk to learn more about the past and present of Cherokee culture.

Table of Contents

  • Introduction
  • Lesson Plan Ideas
  • 4th Grade Essential Standards for Social Studies and Art
  • Cherokee Artists DVD guide
  • Artifact Analysis questions
  • Group Activity Ideas
  • Artifact Descriptions
  • Artifact Photographs and collections sheets
  • Cultural Periods in western North Carolina Chart
  • Cultural Period descriptions
  • Reading questions from Journal of Jesse Smoke book from trunk
  • Children‚Äôs Book List (annotated) from the trunk
  • Teacher‚Äôs Book List (annotated) from the trunk
  • Web resources (annotated)

Lesson Plan Ideas

From WCU’s Craft Revival website (K-12 section)

From Learnnc.org

 

Open Tuesday-Sunday, 11:00 a.m. – 5:00 p.m.
Closed Thanksgiving Day, Christmas Day, New Years Day, Good Friday, Easter, and all Mondays.
The museum is closed on Mondays.
Director: Les Reker
Interested in a guided tour? Please email: lreker@mhu.edu
Office: 828-689-1400
P.O. Box 6705
Mars Hill, NC 28754

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4th Grade Essential Standards

Social Studies

4.H.1   Analyze the chronology of key historical events in NC history.

4.H.1.3 Explain how people, events and developments brought about changes to communities in various regions of NC.

4.G.1 Understand how human, environmental and technological factors affect the growth and development of NC.

4.G.1.2 Explain the impact that human activity has on the availability of natural resources in NC.

4.G.1.3 Exemplify the interactions of various peoples, places and cultures in terms of adaptation and modification of the environment.

4.G.1.4 Explain the impact of technology (communication, transportation and inventions) on NC’s citizens, past and present.

4.E.1 Understand how a market economy impacts life in NC.

4.E.1.1  Understand the basic concepts of a market economy: price, supply, demand, scarcity, productivity and entrepreneurship.

4.C.1 Understand the impact of various cultural groups on NC.

4.C.1.1 Explain how the settlement of people from various cultures affected the development of regions in NC (languages, foods and traditions).

4.C.1.2 Explain how the artistic expression of various groups represents the cultural heritage of NC.

4.H.1   Analyze the chronology of key historical events in NC history.

4.H.1.3 Explain how people, events and developments brought about changes to communities in various regions of NC.

4.G.1 Understand how human, environmental and technological factors affect the growth and development of NC.

4.G.1.2 Explain the impact that human activity has on the availability of natural resources in NC.

4.G.1.3 Exemplify the interactions of various peoples, places and cultures in terms of adaptation and modification of the environment.

4.G.1.4 Explain the impact of technology (communication, transportation and inventions) on NC’s citizens, past and present.

4.E.1 Understand how a market economy impacts life in NC.

4.E.1.1  Understand the basic concepts of a market economy: price, supply, demand, scarcity, productivity and entrepreneurship.

4.C.1 Understand the impact of various cultural groups on NC.

4.C.1.1 Explain how the settlement of people from various cultures affected the development of regions in NC (languages, foods and traditions).

4.C.1.2 Explain how the artistic expression of various groups represents the cultural heritage of NC.

Art

4.V.1               Use the language of visual arts to communicate effectively.

4.V.1.1                        Use appropriate art vocabulary to compare artists’ styles.

4.V.1.3                        Infer meaning from art.

4.V.1.4                        Understand how the Elements of Art are used to develop a composition.

4.V.1.5                        Understand how the Principles of Design work in relation to each other.

4.V.2               Apply creative and critical thinking skills to artistic expression.

4.V.2.1                        Identify different successful solutions to artistic problems.

4.V.2.2                        Use ideas and imagery from NC as sources for creating art.

4.V.3               Create art using a variety of tools, media, and processes, safely and appropriately.

4.V.3.1                        Apply a variety of methods of manipulating a single tool, safely and appropriately.

4.V.3.2                        Compare characteristics of a variety of media.

4.CR.1             Use critical analysis to generate responses to a variety of prompts.

4.CR.1.1          Use visual clues to interpret the content of art.

4.CX.1.3          Classify NC artists in terms of styles, genre, and/or movements.

4.CX.1.4          Explain how place and time influence ideas, issues, and themes found in art.

4.CX.1.5          Analyze the effect of the geographic location and physical environment on the media and subject matter of NC art and artists.

4.CX.2             Understand the interdisciplinary connections and life applications of the visual arts.

4.CX.2.1          Exemplify visual arts industries in NC.

4.CX.2.2          Apply skills and concepts learned in other disciplines, such as math, science, language arts, social studies, and other arts, in the visual arts.

4.CX.2.3          Understand individual roles, while applying collaborative skills in creating art.

4.CX.2.4          Explain the effect of technology on the way products look and how they are created.

English

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.4.1 Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.4.2 Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text; summarize the text.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.4.3 Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., a character’s thoughts, words, or actions).

Craft and Structure

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.4.4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including those that allude to significant characters found in mythology (e.g., Herculean).

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.4.5 Explain major differences between poems, drama, and prose, and refer to the structural elements of poems (e.g., verse, rhythm, meter) and drama (e.g., casts of characters, settings, descriptions, dialogue, stage directions) when writing or speaking about a text.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.4.6 Compare and contrast the point of view from which different stories are narrated, including the difference between first- and third-person narrations.

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.4.7 Make connections between the text of a story or drama and a visual or oral presentation of the text, identifying where each version reflects specific descriptions and directions in the text.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.4.9 Compare and contrast the treatment of similar themes and topics (e.g., opposition of good and evil) and patterns of events (e.g., the quest) in stories, myths, and traditional literature from different cultures.

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity

Children’s Resources in the Trunk

Bruchac, Joseph. On This Long Journey: The Journal of Jesse, A Cherokee, The Trail of Tears, 1838. 2013.

Fictional novel about a sixteen-year-old Cherokee boy named Jesse Smoke. The Historical Note in the back of the book (pages 171-190) will be helpful for building a wider context.

Bushyhead, Robert H., Kay T. Bannon, and Kristina Rodanas. Yonder Mountain: A Cherokee Legend. 2002.

An easy-to-read Cherokee legend as told by Robert Bushyhead (EBCI), a good book to read aloud to the class.

Chiltoskey, Mary Ulmer, and Samuel E. Beck. Cherokee Cooklore: Preparing Cherokee Foods. Cherokee, 1951.

The first part of this book follows Aggie Lossiah, the great-granddaughter of Chief John Ross, as she prepares bean bread. Pages 2-41 show the traditional process in pictures, as well as capturing some of her words. The second part of the book is a collection of recipes along with the Cherokee translated food names where possible, and an account of the 1949 Cherokee Indian Feast sponsored by the Museum of the Cherokee Indian.

DeAngelis, Therese. The Cherokee: Native Basket Weavers. 2003. 

This book is a good overview of the importance of baskets to Cherokee culture. It also gives information on the Cherokee myth of the creation of the Milky Way, Cherokee after the Trail of Tears, Cherokee today, and also gives instructions for weaving a craft out of paper, a recipe for cornmeal cookies, and instructions for a game of Disk and Pole.

Hill, Luzene. The Cranky Old Woman (in Cherokee). 2007.

Written in Cherokee, this book tells the tale of an old, cranky woman and how she turned into a woodpecker.

Pennington, Daniel. ITSE SELU: Cherokee Harvest Festival. 1994.

This is the story of Little Wolf’s adventures waiting on ITSE SELU, the Green Corn Festival. The book features a key word pertinent to the story at the bottom of each page to learn in Cherokee.

Waxman, Laura Hamilton. Sequoyah. 2004.

An easy-to-read biography will introduce young readers to the life and work of Sequoyah. There is a useful timeline of Sequoyah’s life, along with a section with for further reading and helpful websites.

Teacher Resources in the Trunk

Duncan, Barbara R., and Davey Arch. Living Stories of the Cherokee. 1998.

Introduction is a good source for teachers. Some popular stories are:

  • ‚ÄúThe Origin of Legends‚ÄĚ (p. 32)- talks about the importance of legends to¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Cherokee society and how the legends came to be.
  • ‚ÄúGetting Fire‚ÄĚ (p. 53)- The story of how fire was brought to our side of the world.
  • ‚ÄúThe Cherokee Little People‚ÄĚ (p. 69)- A story of the Little People and Forever Boy and a reminder to keep young in our hearts.

Fariello, M. Anna. Cherokee Basketry: From the Hands of Our Elders. 2009.

This book is an excellent resource for photographs of baskets. Color close-ups of baskets and pattern names appear in the middle of the book (no page numbers, but between pages 96 and 97). This book includes history of Cherokee basketry, and of the people who keep the tradition alive.

Fariello, M. Anna. Cherokee Pottery: From the Hands of Our Elders. 2011.

This book is an excellent resource for photographs of pottery. Color photos are on pages 65-72. This book includes history of Cherokee pottery, and of the people who keep the tradition alive.

Perdue, Theda. Native Carolinians: The Indians of North Carolina. 1985.

This books is an excellent resource for teachers. The book gives a good overview of the history, lifestyle, and culture of the native people of North Carolina pre and post contact. Focus is on the Cherokee and Lumbee Indians. Useful pictures are throughout along with a timeline of major events in the appendix.

Purdue, Theda, and Frank W. Porter. The Cherokee. 1989.

This book could also be used for an advanced reader. The book is broken up into short chapters on pre and post contact, removal, and devotes separate chapters to the Cherokee of the 20th century. There is a useful photo essay of Cherokee crafts on pages 65-72.

Shumate, Jane. Sequoyah: Inventor of the Cherokee Alphabet. 1994.

This is a good book for a more advanced reader, or for a teacher resource.

Ward, H. Trawick, and R. P. Stephen Davis. Time Before History: The Archaeology of North Carolina. 1999.

This is a very in depth look at North Carolina archaeology. For this region, see chapter 5, ‚ÄúThe Woodland and Mississippian Periods in the Appalachian Summit Region: The Search for Cherokee Roots‚ÄĚ (p. 138).

Web Resources

Qualla Arts and Crafts Mutual Inc. The premier craft cooperative store in Cherokee. Check out the Gallery page and the Artist pages for images and information about Cherokee Crafts.

Cherokee Traditions: From the Hands of Our Elders is a database of Cherokee art forms, historic photographs, and native language recordings.

Craft Revival: Shaping Western North Carolina Past Present and Future. The 20th Century Craft Revival is well documented on this website. It features many Cherokee artists along with people and sites from across this region.

The Cherokee Phoenix was the national newspaper of the Cherokee Nation. The transcriptions on this website were originally published between 1828 and 1834.

LearnNC needs no explantion. Here is the section on the Cherokee with collected resources and lesson plans.

Intrigue of the Past: North Carolina’s First Peoples is a teacher activity guide for fourth through eight grades.

Cherokee Artists DVD

Each segment is about 5-7 min long. Gives an introduction to the artist and their various crafts/ skills all in their own words.

  1. Tom Belt, storyteller
  2. Karen George, artist and weaver
  3. Davy Arch, artist and carver
  4. Sylvester Crowe, bow maker
  5. Kim Bottchenbaugh, finger weaver
  6. Joel Queen, potter and carver
  7. Kathi Littlejohn, storyteller
  8. Jerry Wolfe, storyteller and ball stick maker
  9. Geraldine Walkingstick, basketmaker
  10. Darrin Bark, potter and artist
  11. John Ed. Walkingstick, bow maker
  12. Fred Wilnoty, carver

Suggested viewing:

#7 (The Grouchy Old Woman story told in English)

#8 (story about stickball and history of the sport)

#10 (Darrin Bark talks about learning to be an artist as a teenager)

Cherokee Artists DVD

Each segment is about 5-7 min long. Gives an introduction to the artist and their various crafts/ skills all in their own words.

  1. Tom Belt, storyteller
  2. Karen George, artist and weaver
  3. Davy Arch, artist and carver
  4. Sylvester Crowe, bow maker
  5. Kim Bottchenbaugh, finger weaver
  6. Joel Queen, potter and carver
  7. Kathi Littlejohn, storyteller
  8. Jerry Wolfe, storyteller and ball stick maker
  9. Geraldine Walkingstick, basketmaker
  10. Darrin Bark, potter and artist
  11. John Ed. Walkingstick, bow maker
  12. Fred Wilnoty, carver

Suggested viewing:

#7 (The Grouchy Old Woman story told in English)

#8 (story about stickball and history of the sport)

#10 (Darrin Bark talks about learning to be an artist as a teenager)

 

Journal of Jesse Smoke

Discussion Guide

Thinking About the Book

  1. What surprised you most as you read Jesse’s journal and learned about his experiences on “The Trail of Tears?”
  2. Why do Jesse’s friends call him “Mission Boy?” What does that mean to them? What does the mission education mean to Jesse?
  3. What role do women play in the Cherokee culture? Find examples in Jesse’s journal that support his observation that, “In our Cherokee way, it is the women who are the real heads of our households.”
  4. Who is the Feeler? In what ways is he important to Jesse?
  5. What does Jesse mean in the following statement? “The land must be cleansed of us like soil washed from a pale hand.”
  6. What is the most memorable scene in The Journal of Jesse Smoke? Explain your answer.
  7. Identify each of the following and explain their importance in Jesse’s journal.
  • Treaty of New Echota
  • Chief John Ross
  • Sequoyah
  • Rev. Jesse Bushyhead
  • Tahlequah
  1. If you could choose only one word to describe Jesse Smoke, what would that word be? Why?
  2. Jesse tries to explain to White Will why there was a division among the Cherokee people over the signing of the Treaty of New Echota. Jesse writes, “I then explained to him that by signing away our lands, their lives were forfeit. They knew that when they signed they might also be signing their own death warrants.” What happened to the men who signed that treaty?

Journal of Jesse Smoke

Student Activities

  1. Look at the Cherokee Museum’s map of the Trail of Tears.
  • According to Jesse’s journal, which route did they follow?
  • Which seems the longest?
  • Which might have the most dangers?
  • Why do you think so?
  1. In the old west people branded their livestock to show ownership. Each owner’s brand was different from any other. The Cherokee were to brand their animals with CN (for Cherokee Nation). Look up brands and see some of the many designs that have been used. Create and draw your own brand using your initials or other distinguishing mark.
  2. Imagine that you were with Chief John Ross as he tried to persuade the officials in our nation’s capital to halt or postpone the Removal. Write a speech that could convince the President to stop this forced migration.
  3. Find out more about the author, Joseph Bruchac.

 

Cherokee Crafts Trunk  contents

 -Support Notebook

with Cherokee Artist DVD

 -Artifact Box

Placemat with basket patterns

Whiteoak basket

Honeysuckle basket

Clay pot (fired)

Clay pot (unfired)

Toy blowgun and 2 darts

Wolf mask

Shell earring

Belt

Rivercane basket

Carved birds (2)

Projectile points (6)

-Book Box

The Journal of Jesse Smoke, A Cherokee Boy, The Trail of Tears

Yonder Mountain: A Cherokee Legend

Cherokee Cooklore: Preparing Cherokee Foods

The Cherokee:  Native Basket Weavers

Sequoyah

Living Stories of the Cherokee

Cherokee Basketry: From the Hands of our Elders

Cherokee Pottery:  From the Hands of our Elders

Native Carolinians: The Indians of North Carolina

The Cherokee

Inventor of the Cherokee Alphabet

Time Before History: The Archaeology of North Carolina

-Multiple Book Box

The Cranky Old Woman (10)

ITSE SELU: Cherokee Harvest Festival (10)