- B.A., University of North Carolina at Asheville, 1982
- M.Ed., Western Carolina University, 1994
- Ph.D., Northcentral University, 2010
“Police History.” Craig Goforth and Barbara Sims, in the Encyclopedia of Crime and Punishment, Wesley Jennings (ed.) 2014, Wiley-Blackwell.
“Radical/Marxist Theories of Crime.” With Barbara Sims in Encyclopedia of Sociology, Blackwell Publishers, Edited by Ruth Triplett, 2016 (revised).
The effectiveness of focused deterrence programs
Barriers to the successful prosecution of hate crimes